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Вторник, 07.02.2023, 13:38
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Автомобили. За и против.

There is no doubt that the invention of the car completely changed the way people thought about travelling causing the de­velopment of many other means of transport. However, the draw­backs of cars make people think that we should stop using them.

In my opinion, cars are necessary in today's world. To begin with, they help us transport goods to places that cannot be reached by other means of transport. In addition, cars are the main way of transportation for people who live far from their workplaces, especially now when public transport is frequently lacking. It is even more difficult to use public transport if you have children with you or heavy goods to carry. Finally, cars are the best way of travelling because you need not buy tickets and you can stop wherever you like.

Nevertheless, cars are often criticised because they cause air pollution. Another argument against using cars is that people are turning into legless creatures and inactivity leads to serious diseas­es. I cannot agree with these views because nowadays all cars are to be equipped with special control systems to reduce their ex­haust fumes and new environmentally friendly cars are being de­veloped. Moreover, with cars, people have better opportunities to reach sports facilities and therefore spend more time doing sports.

To sum up, I would argue that although cars have certain dis­advantages people would not be able to survive without them. However, I believe that we should improve cars to lower their harmful influence on people's health.

Богатые, только они успешные. Согласны ли вы с данным утверждением.

Does one's success depend on the amount of money a person earns? This question has always worried people and the answer to it is not simple.

In my opinion, being rich does not necessarily mean that you are successful. First of all, if you only work for money, you will not get satisfaction from your job. What is more, while making your fortune, you may not have enough time for your family so you are bound to have problems in family relationship. Finally, lots of money can worsen your character because rich people are often greedy and arrogant so you are unlikely to have any true friends.

Unfortunately, most people view success in terms of money. They believe money will bring happiness because they will be able to buy luxurious things, travel around the world and realise their dreams. However, there are a lot of millionaires with personal problems and they are often very unhappy. You can buy houses and cars but money will not help you to buy love, friendship and good health, which are the most valuable things in life. What is more, being wealthy is often a powerful predictor that people spend less time doing pleasurable things and therefore feel stressed.

In conclusion, I would argue that being rich is not the only way of being successful in life. From my point of view, it is more important to have an interesting job, good friends and a happy family. Other people make you happy, not money!

Будущее. Плохо будет или хорошо?

People have always been intrigued of what the future will look like. That is why there are a lot of futuristic books and films, both optimistic and pessimistic. But what does the real future holds for us? Will life in the future be better, worse or the same as now?

As for me, I am optimistic about the future. We have already seen major technological advances over the last fifty years and the next fifty years are going to be equally exciting. For example, in fifty years' time scientists will have created robots that will be do­ing all dangerous and difficult jobs. In addition, medicine tech­nology will have conquered many diseases including AIDS and cancer. As for entertainment, I believe we will get it from the In­ternet and television will probably disappear.

However, some people feel pessimistic about our future. They worry about the activity of terrorists and the possibility of nuclear wars. Another problem is our environment, which is in a sorry state. I am sure that people will be able control their weapons be­cause everybody understands what disastrous consequences nuclear wars may have. We will also take care of our environment and in the future people will drive petrol-free cars, drink purified water and recycle their rubbish.

To sum up, I believe that we will finally solve all our problems and will live happily. History shows that people can make the right choices. That's a good reason to be optimistic about science and humanity.

Внешний вид. Многие считают, что это очень важно…

What people wear says a lot about who they are and what they do. It is not surprising that teenagers are so concerned about their clothes. However, their parents think that following fashion is a waste of time.

From my point of view, it is important to look smart and at­tractive. We cannot go through life with the same hairstyle or make-up. I believe it is also necessary for teenagers to follow fash­ion. When you are up with fashion, you feel confident. Neverthe­less, I feel that looking clean and tidy is even more important than looking stylish. What is more, everyone should find their own style to express their individuality. I hate when people dress alike. As for me, I prefer hand-made or designer clothes and try to look stylish.

Many adults do not understand why teens spend so much time and money on their clothes. Moreover, they are often quite old-fashioned and do not accept modern trends in clothing. They say that fashion comes and goes but classical style remains: I can­not agree with them because teenage fashion is quite specific. No­body likes to dress in styles that are too old for them, and it is no fun being teased because of it.

In conclusion, I would argue that modern lifestyle forces us to look stylish because people judge us by our clothes. It is espe­cially important in business where your look can actually make or lose you money. Therefore I think we should learn how to look nice.

Все школьные предметы одинаково важны. Согласны ли вы с этим. People have various preferences so it is natural that school students want to study the subjects they are interested in. Yet many teachers are against this, arguing that students must learn all subjects equally.

In my opinion, students should be allowed to choose the sub­jects they want to study because in this case they will probably be more enthusiastic about their school work. In addition, if students are forced to study all subjects obligatorily, they can easily lose in­terest in education. What is more, if all subjects are compulsory for studying, students will not have enough time to learn all of them properly therefore they will be constantly under a lot of pressure.

On the other hand, most teachers believe their subject is of great importance and they will not let it be optional. Moreover, teachers claim that students must be well rounded so they need to study all subjects equally. I am afraid, however, that when we learn a variety of subjects, we get very poor knowledge and we are not able to get an idea of what our interests are. Besides, some subjects can be of no use for us in the future and we will forget everything we learned at school.

In conclusion, I strongly believe that being free to choose what to study is an effective form of education. Nevertheless, I must admit that we should not completely reject all the other subjects. Instead, teachers must find an easier form of teaching them.

Генетически-модифицированные продукты. За или против.

Genetically modified crops have made a big splash in the news lately. For example, in Honduras farmers are encouraged to produce genetically modified (GM) crops although many people dispute about harmful effects of genetic technologies.

On the one hand, genetic technology is one of the best solutions to the problem of world hunger. GM crops are faster and cheaper to grow therefore it will be possible to increase production and lower the cost of food. Besides, these crops could be grown in areas suffering from drought and salt. More than that, many people rely on geneti­cally modified foods for medicines, for example insulin for diabetics.

On the other hand, there is a possibility that introducing a gene into a plant may have an unexpected and negative impact on human health, for instance, it may create a new allergen and cause an allergic reaction in susceptible individuals. In addition, since some crops are modified using the DNA from viruses and bacteria, we may encounter new diseases. Moreover, GM crops may also pose a health risk to animals that eat them as they may be poisoned by built-in pesticides.

In conclusion, 1 would like to say that many people feel that genetic engineering is the inevitable wave of the future and that we cannot afford to ignore a technology that has such enormous potential benefits. However, we must proceed with caution to avoid causing unintended harm to human health and the envi­ronment as a result of our enthusiasm for this powerful technology.

Город или деревня?

 Nowadays lots of young people tend to move to cities in search of better life. On the contrary, many adults consider such a lifestyle quite dangerous for their children. Who is right? Is the life in the city really as harmful as it may seem?

On the one hand, city life has lots of advantages. For example, it is often easier to get prestigious education and to find a well-paid job. Besides, there is a wider choice of shops, sports facilities and health centres. What is more, if you live in the city, you can eat in good restaurants, visit museums, and go to theatres or con­certs. All in all, city lifestyle is full of variety so you will never feel bored.

On the other hand, we must admit that city life is rather un­safe as there is a lot of crime and violence. What is more, transport and industry are the main reasons for all kinds of pollution there­fore city dwellers often have more problems with their health. Last of all, young people living in cities are likely to acquire such bad habits as smoking, drinking alcohol or even taking drugs.

In conclusion, I think that city life has its pros and cons. However, if we try and solve the problems of crime and pollution, then living in the city will be really enjoyable. As for me, I would prefer to live in the city because I am keen on visiting theatres and don't mind noise and pollution.

Граффити. За или против.

Art has lots of different forms. However, its evaluation has be­come especially problematic since the twentieth century when controversial art forms such as graffiti became popular. Although graffiti is often regarded as a new form of art worthy of display in galleries, its value is still highly contested.

On the one hand, works produced by graffiti artists demon­strate a broad spectrum of personal and cultural expression there­fore it is the way for people to express their talent. In addition, graffiti like any other art work takes vision, planning as well as lots of efforts. What is more, in many ways viewing graffiti art is very much like viewing contemporary art in a gallery and it is appreci­ated by many people.

On the other hand, graffiti is often seen as vandalism because instead of canvas graffiti artists choose train cars, bridges or public walls, which makes our cities look really ugly and run-down. Moreover, most of the graffiti you see on walls is a collection of swear words, gang names or just silly drawings. For many people graffiti is often associated with crime and violence.

To sum up, graffiti can be called an art form as long as artists get permission from those whose property might be used as canvas. In my opinion, people paint on public things because they have nowhere else to express their talent. I strongly believe city authorities should create special places for graffiti artists where all people will be able to appreciate this wonderful art form.

Дальнейшее обучение после школы.

Many roads are open before school-leavers therefore it is not easy for them to make the right choice. Some students believe that it is necessary to get higher education whereas others prefer to earn money.

On the one hand, it is better to continue our education and get the necessary knowledge for our future profession. At univer­sities we learn how to learn so that we can make use of this ability in other more practical areas later on in life. Besides, if we have good qualifications, we will be able to find a highly paid job be­cause every company needs well-qualified employees. Moreover, while studying at university, we can make lots of new friends and university life is usually interesting and exciting.

However, many students take a gap year after school and start, working in order to find out what their interests are and choose their future career. Besides, they can get the necessary experience and it will be a useful introduction to the world of business. Many people nowadays follow the traditional 'start at the bottom and work your way up' approach. What is more, they will earn money and become independent of their parents.

In conclusion, I want to say that the final choice depends on the person's attitude to education. Personally, I think that further education is very important and it is easier to study when you are young. So after finishing school I am going to enter a college or university and to continue my education.

Диеты. Что вы делаете, чтобы оставаться в форме.

Nowadays many people think they are too fat even if their doctors disagree. They think the best way to improve their fitness is following a diet. But is dieting really so effective and healthy?

On the one hand, if you want to lose weight it is very important to keep your eye on what you eat. To begin with, you should cut out snacks and desserts, which add weight without boosting energy levels. Besides, you ought to cut down on fat as it is believed to be one of the major causes of obesity. Finally, you may count the number of calories you eat every day, which may substantially re­duce the amount of food you eat and help to lose weight.

On the other hand, strict dieting may be dangerous. Firstly, the lower the calories eaten per day, the harder it is to get the daily requirements of proteins and vitamins. In addition, excessive di­eting causes muscle loss and this loss may be from your heart with severe consequences. Moreover, dieting lowers your metabolic rate, so when you return to your normal food intake, you will put on weight even faster than before.

To conclude, I believe that to stay healthy everybody should follow a sensible, well-balanced diet that gives their body exactly what it needs. However, I think the best way of keeping fit is doing sports. If you do regular exercise, you can eat and drink whatever you want because you are burning it all off.

Единый язык для всей планеты. За и против.

No doubt that learning languages takes up a lot of time. That is why some people think that it would be better to have only one lan­guage on our planet. But will it be really beneficial for mankind?

In my opinion, the reduction of the number of languages is a disaster because it will totally destroy our great cultural heritage. With each loss of a language comes a loss of a culture, a loss of a way of life that deserves to be protected and treated as valuable. 1 also believe that leaving one language for communication will greatly reduce the linguistic diversity of our planet, which is the key to our survival. What is more, it will be rather difficult to choose which language to use and it may even lead to wars.

Many people think that if we have only one language, com­munication will become easier and there will be no need to learn foreign languages. I cannot agree with them because knowledge of foreign languages makes a person educated and well rounded. You cannot broaden your mind if you see the world only from the per­spective of your own culture. Besides, people are a lot more help­ful if you speak their language.

In conclusion, I would argue that we should try our best to pre­serve the linguistic diversity of our planet. I think that larger cul­tures should have a respect for minority languages, but first of all the younger generation must want to preserve their native language.

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